Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o, a Kenya writer, wrote in Decolonising the Mind (1986) that colonialism’s “most important area of domination was the mental universe of the colonised, the control, through culture, of how people perceived themselves and their relationship to the world. . . . To control a people’s culture is to control their tools of self-definition in relationship to others. For colonialism this involved two aspects of the same process: the destruction or the deliberate undervaluing of a people’s culture, their art, dances, religions, history, geography, education, orature and literature, and the conscious elevation of the language of the coloniser.” Ngũgĩ no longer writes in English; instead, he writes in Gikuyu.